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2.5.2 Imaging and Microscopy

The link between the nanoscale and microscale material properties to the macroscale device performance will be achieved through the following approaches:

• Scanning and Transmission electron microscopy.

• Luminescence imaging (PL, electroluminescence (EL), cathodoluminescence): Quasi Fermi level splitting, ideality factor, pseudo-IV, activation energy, Urbach energy, series resistance, etc.

• Dark lock-in thermography: detection of shunt and damaged p-n junctions

• Light- and electron-beam induced current microscopy

• Magnetic-field imaging

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