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2.5.1 Advanced Spectroscopy

Understanding the electrical, optical and structural properties will unlock fundamental fingerprints of new materials. This will involve developing and harness key spectroscopic tools that are:

• Light-based (Photoluminescence (PL), time resolved PL, Raman, reflection and absorption spectroscopy): bandgap, absorption, parasitic losses, recombination, minority carrier traps.

• Electron beam-based (UV and X-Ray photoelectron and energy dispersive X-Ray spectroscopy (UPS, XPS and EDS)): composition, energy levels, work functions.

• X-ray and neutron scattering to determine films densities and interface structures.

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