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5.1.2 Modified Cell and Module Designs

• Draw on findings from PP5.1A, target device and module fabrication changes to increase the sustainable manufacturing capacity of the respective technologies, while ensuring high performance and low LCOE values.

• Investigate alternative metallisation technologies, targeting reducing silver consumption to < 2 mg/W in collaboration with SunDrive.

• Assess two-terminal tandem devices, for the unique opportunity to greatly reduce silver by a factor of up to six compared to PERC.

• Investigate sustainability issues passivating contacts the bottom-cell of silicon-based tandems, moving away from ITO.

• Investigate opportunities for changes to cell metallisation and interconnection schemes in module level technology development for both screen-printed and plated cells to assist with the reduction of key materials such as silver, lead and bismuth.

• Investigate aluminium usage with reduced-frame or frame-less modules and changes to cell configurations. The activity will also develop low-weight modules to reduce emissions associated with transportation.

2030 Objectives

• Fabricate a solar cell featuring at least one passivated contact with consumption of key materials sufficiently low to enable TW scale manufacturing

• Develop a solar cell structure featuring a transparent conductive oxide layer suitable for TW scale PV deployment

• Develop a contact geometry to reduce silver consumption down to 2 mg/W using screen-printing

• Develop low-temperature interconnection with bismuth consumption < 2 mg/W

• Develop a module-based milestone with low Al, large module, or light weight.

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