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5.1.1 Critical Material Challenges

• Progress early development of critical material challenges across the whole PV value chain for existing (PERC, TOPCon and SHJ) and emerging solar cell and module technologies. Assessments will be based on projected cell/module efficiencies, global material reserves and annual supply, expected material requirements for other clean energy technologies and will consider the impact of module recycling, and length of operation in the field.

• Develop technology roadmaps and compare with other roadmaps including ITPRV. Objectives

• Identify critical material issues at the cell, module and system level for PERC, TOPCon, SHJ as well as potential emerging thin-film and tandem technologies including siliconbased tandems.

• Develop technology roadmaps to achieve annual manufacturing capacities >1 TW per year for all main technologies listed in the ITRPV 2021 to 2030 (PERC, TOPCon, SHJ, back-contact and silicon-based tandems) and others as required, including critical materials (eg. silver, indium, bismuth) and key module/system materials including steel, concrete, aluminium, glass, copper.

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