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1.1.2 Defect Engineering

Improvements in efficiency will come from research into (a) Identification of key defects including oxygen precipitation, trace metals, crystal dislocations and new defects with developments in n-type silicon, and in larger ingots and wafers and in increasing kerf-less processing. A greater understanding of how these defects form and evolve during ingot growth and cell fabrication is essential to develop new strategies to eliminate or reduce them

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