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Metal Chalcogenides (PP2.4)

PP2.4 Metal Chalcogenides

Investigators: Xiaojing Hao (UNSW), Martin Green (UNSW), Bram Hoax (UNSW), Ned (UNSW), Ziv Hameiri (UNSW), Anthony Chesman (CSIRO), Jacek Jasieniak (Monash), Daniel MacDonald (ANU), Mei Gao (CSIRO).


Aims and objectives

This work package will build on ACAP’s existing world-leading position in metal chalcogenide solar cell research to advance these technologies towards record efficiency levels of >20%, sustainability (abundant and non-toxic constituents), and robustness.


The full potential of chalcogenide materials will be extracted for low-bandgap single-junction solar cells suitable for niche PV market and tandem cells. This works aims to demonstrate technological flexibility (structural flexibility, transparency, bifacial architectures), as well as the demonstration of their minimodules (>100 square cm). 


From a photovoltaic perspective, metal chalcogenides are known for their high efficiency potential, excellent durability, tuneable bandgap, and great substrate versatility (in glass, steel, and silicon). These materials can be categorised across several categories: 

Chalcogenide-1.0 is well known for two commercialised PV technologies (i.e., CdTe and CIGS); Chalcogenide-2.0, represented by kesterite (CZTS) and antimony chalcogenide, is well recognised for its cost-effectiveness and eco-friendliness by using abundant and non-toxic, materials compliant with US Restriction of Hazardous Substances code.


Working with already-available production-line equipment, the upscaling of the chalcogenide-2.0 PV technologies is feasible once their efficiencies reach a market-acceptable level. The need for increasing diversity of viable PV materials for greater adaptability has encouraged a continued search for next generation through metal chalcogenides (3.0), which unites the outstanding optoelectronic properties of perovskites with the durability of chalcogenides.

Research Activities and Plans

The key technological challenges to achieve high efficiency of metal chalcogenide solar cells vary with material types (i.e. chalcogenide #1-3) and maturity of their development. ACAP will focus its research activities across key current research gaps.


PP2.4.1 Metal Chalcogenide 1.0 and 2.0

PP 2.4.2 Metal Chalcogenide 3.0

PP 2.4.3 Demonstration and Evaluation of (Flexible) Minimodules

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